Capital employed, also known as funds employed, is the total amount of capital used for the acquisition of profits by a firm or project. Capital employed can also refer to the value of all the assets used by a company to generate earnings.
By employing capital, companies invest in the long-term future of the company. Capital employed is helpful since it’s used with other financial metrics to determine the return on a company’s assets as well as how effective management is at employing capital.
Cash Conversion Cycle
The cash conversion cycle (CCC) is a metric that expresses the time (measured in days) it takes for a company to convert its investments in inventory and other resources into cash flows from sales. Also called the Net Operating Cycle or simply Cash Cycle, CCC attempts to measure how long each net input dollar is tied up in the production and sales process before it gets converted into cash received.
This metric takes into account how much time the company needs to sell its inventory, how much time it takes to collect receivables, and how much time it has to pay its bills.
The term cash flow refers to the net amount of cash and cash equivalents being transferred in and out of a company. Cash received represents inflows, while money spent represents outflows. A company’s ability to create value for shareholders is fundamentally determined by its ability to generate positive cash flows or, more specifically, to maximize long-term free cash flow (FCF). FCF is the cash generated by a company from its normal business operations after subtracting any money spent on capital expenditures (CapEx).
A chargeback is a return of money to a payer of some transaction, especially a credit card transaction. Chargebacks also occur in B2B transactions. This type of chargeback occurs when the supplier sells a product at a higher price to the distributor than the price they have set with the end user. The distributor then submits a chargeback to the supplier so they can recover the money lost in the transaction.
Cost of Capital
Cost of capital is a company’s calculation of the minimum return that would be necessary in order to justify undertaking a capital budgeting project, such as building a new factory.
The term cost of capital is used by analysts and investors, but it is always an evaluation of whether a projected decision can be justified by its cost. Investors may also use the term to refer to an evaluation of an investment’s potential return in relation to its cost and its risks.
Cost of Goods Sold (COGS)
Cost of goods sold (COGS) refers to the direct costs of producing the goods sold by a company. This amount includes the cost of the materials and labor directly used to create the good. It excludes indirect expenses, such as distribution costs and sales force costs.
Cost of goods sold is also referred to as “cost of sales.”
In legal and financial terminology, a covenant is a promise in an indenture, or any other formal debt agreement, that certain activities will or will not be carried out or that certain thresholds will be met. Covenants in finance most often relate to terms in a financial contract, such as a loan document or bond issue stating the limits at which the borrower can further lend.
Credit risk is the possibility of a loss resulting from a borrower’s failure to repay a loan or meet contractual obligations. Traditionally, it refers to the risk that a lender may not receive the owed principal and interest, which results in an interruption of cash flows and increased costs for collection. Excess cash flows may be written to provide additional cover for credit risk. When a lender faces heightened credit risk, it can be mitigated via a higher coupon rate, which provides for greater cash flows.
Although it’s impossible to know exactly who will default on obligations, properly assessing and managing credit risk can lessen the severity of a loss. Interest payments from the borrower or issuer of a debt obligation are a lender’s or investor’s reward for assuming credit risk.
Customer / Account Debtor
A customer or account debtor is a business or organization that owes money on an invoice purchased by the factor (i.e., the client’s customers).